EXODUS STUDY WITH A
CONCENTRATION ON CHAPTER 12
Article by Ted McDivett
The book of Exodus is divided into three parts:
1-18 – the exodus
19-24 – the law
25-40 – the tabernacle
In this study we are looking at the events that led up to
the exodus and in particular chapter 12.
The book begins with Israel’s expansion in Egypt that in
turn leads to their oppression. Then we
have preparation for Moses to be Israel’s deliverer. This is followed by numerous requests and
refusals resulting in these ten judgments:
1) the plague of blood (Nile turning into blood), 2) the plague of
frogs, 3) the plague of gnats, 4) the plague of flies, 5) the plague of
livestock, 6) the plague of boils, 7) the plague of hail, 8) the plague of
locusts, 9) the plague of darkness, 10) the plague of the firstborn.
This is then followed by the Passover and exodus out of
Question – Why all the plagues?
show the Egyptians that Israel’s God is greater than all of their gods.
plagues were also judgments against the gods of Egypt that in type, were
judgments against the gods of the nations.
Still today the gods of Egypt are being worshipped in one form or
A lot of the plagues in Egypt are replicated in
Revelation. Compare Exodus 7:18-21 with
Rev. 8:8-9 and 16:3-4 (water into blood).
Compare Ex. 8:3 with Rev. 16:13-14 (frogs). Compare Ex. 8:16-19 with Rev. 9:5-6 (note too
that in Deut. 14:19, gnats are unclean insects.
You think anyone swallowed these?
The idea is an insect creature and the land is defiled and death is
All of this is a graphic judgment that shows Egypt that
Elohim is greater than anything they have.
One way or another Egypt is going to know Yahweh is Elohim. This brings us to Exodus 12.
Exodus 12 may be one of the most important chapters in the
whole Bible. Hopefully this will become
manifest as we study it.
A NEW BEGINNING
For one thing, chapter 12 is a pivotal point in Old
Testament history. Here is when Israel’s
birth as a nation occurs. Verses 1 and 2
bring this out. For all intents and
purposes, their life began here. More
will be said about the Passover, but for now, I’d like to stress that the
beginning of their new life began when the blood of the Passover sacrifice was
applied to their doorways (see v.23).
In Ex. 12:2 there is emphasis on a new beginning – a new
start for them as a people. God is
freeing them from their Egyptian bondage.
In doing so, God is making a show of the Egyptian gods—triumphing over
them (compare Col. 2:10-15). Just as
Israel was to always remember their deliverance from Egyptian bondage (by type
– sin) through the blood of the Passover lamb, so we are to see our deliverance
through the death, entombment and resurrection of Christ. In both cases, Israel’s deliverance and ours,
we see God triumphing over all that had us enslaved.
As Passover and the applying of the blood to the door posts
was the deliverance and new beginning for Israel (as well as those Egyptians
and others who were circumcised – see 12:43-49), so it is with us upon
believing in Christ—in His death, entombment and resurrection for our sins—we
too have a new beginning. Our spiritual
life begins at that moment. We become a
new man (a new creation – 2Cor. 5:16-17).
But the starting point of our deliverance is when Christ was
crucified. Everything starts with
that. In type, the blood of the lamb at
that first Passover represented the blood of Christ that was shed for our sakes
(that also occurred on the festival Passover).
Israel as a nation had a birth in their exodus. In the future, Israel will have a new birth
(Jn. 3). Yet for us as members of the
Body of Christ, we are said to be a new creation (2Cor. 5). To create is to bring something into being
that wasn’t there before.
THE PASSOVER WAS A SIGN
In Psalm 78:2-4 we read that Israel was to be instructed by
the miracles God wrought. All of the
signs in Egypt pointed to God. Signs are
a part of their birthright. And this
story was to be told generation after generation.
In Ex. 12, the blood upon the doorposts was a sign as well
(see v.13). As a sign, they were to see
that the blood of the lamb was needed for their redemption. This is the aspect that the apostle Paul
touches on in 1Cor. 5:7 – “Christ is our Passover” – and as such we need to see
our deliverance in Him and also that as believers, we are now separated unto
Him and need to be living as such (1Cor. 5:6-8; 6:19-20). When Paul says Christ is our Passover, we are
to see the spiritual truths that are represented by the Passover that apply to
Israel requires signs.
The blood united them as a people set apart for God and by the physical
ritual of circumcision, even the foreigners/aliens (including the Egyptians and
other Gentiles who applied the blood to their doorposts and left with Israel),
had to be circumcised themselves in flesh to partake of the Passover
(12:43-48), and as such were united under the Abrahamic covenant.
For us today, upon believing that Christ’s blood was shed
for our sakes, the blood is applied to us and we are united with Him.
MORE TYPOLOGY OF THE PASSOVER AND DETAILS OF EXODUS 12
1) Exodus 12:6 – The death of the lamb on that night was
crucial. Israel’s beginning, redemption
is based on the death of the lamb.
1Pet. 1:19-20 – the precious blood of Christ, as of a
flawless and unspotted lamb was foreknown before man was created. Paul says in 1Cor. 2:1 – “for I decide not to
perceive anything among you except Jesus Christ and Him crucified.” Everything with us begins with the death of
Christ. He is the One crucified on our
John 1:29 – John writes, “Lo! the Lamb of God Which is
taking away the sin of the world!” This
identifies Jesus as THE Lamb of God. He
was the price of redemption – to buy back all that was lost. Sin was holding creation in bondage. Egypt in type was a picture of sin. The lamb sacrificed on Passover is what
brought redemption for Israel. This is
why Paul calls Christ our Passover – He was the Lamb of God slain to free us
from all that held us in bondage.
In Gen. 22:7-8, Isaac is the lamb for the offering. In this he was a type of Christ, but the type
can only go so far. As we know, a lamb
was provided that took the place of Isaac.
The reality of the type is Christ.
2) In Ex. 12:3-6 Moses gets specific. On the 10th day of the month they
were to get a lamb. On the 14th
day they were to kill the lamb. In
between they are to look for any imperfections of the lamb. If there were—then they would have to get
another one. It had to be without
blemish. Thus, Christ was also without
sin and therefore fulfilled the type of the lamb offered at Passover.
The following is a developing thought to consider in
relation to Exodus 12, especially during the three days after they obtained the
lamb for sacrifice to see if it had any imperfections. In John 11:47 we see a lot of conflict with
the Jewish leaders because Jesus raised Lazarus from the dead. From that day on, they consult that they
should kill Him (11:53). Jesus knows
what’s in their hearts, so He leaves, and goes into the wilderness
(11:54). In John 11:55 we read that the
Passover of the Jews was near and many went up into Jerusalem that they should
be purifying themselves and they sought Jesus.
Why were they seeking Jesus?
Because they were to look after the lamb before it is sacrificed. So true believers are coming into Jerusalem
to seek the lamb selected. In John 12:1,
Jesus, then six days before the Passover, comes into Bethany. Some understand Christ is coming to be their
Messiah. They understand Exodus 12, Ps.
118, and other Psalms (John 12:12-13).
The Lamb came to save and deliver the world, not to judge it (John
12:47). The purpose is revealed in John
12:32 – “And I, if I should be exalted out of the earth, shall be drawing all
to Myself.” John 12:31 is a judgment
similar to that in Egypt. However, it is
not against the people, but against the god of this world (Satan). By judging the false gods, religions, and
things that hold us in bondage, He brings about liberation and freedom and life
to the people. Judgment of the Egyptian
rule and their gods brought deliverance for God’s people Israel.
All of these passages are dealing with the time of the
Passover. After John 12:13 (Jesus’ entry
into Jerusalem), there was a time of questionings to Jesus. They are trying to entrap Him. So a question here – How does this relate
back to Exodus 12? Remember the time between the 10th and 14th
day of the month—between the selecting of the lamb and the killing of the
lamb? What were the people to be doing
during those days? They were to keep an
eye on the lamb, to observe it to see if it had any imperfections.
Look at Luke 20:1-8.
In this passage the chief priests are the Sadducees, the scribes are the
lawyers, and the elders are the Pharisees.
The religious leaders are questioning Jesus not knowing that in doing
so, they are proving Him in this three-day period to be without blemish. Jesus knows His hour has come (John
13:1). It’s there in type in Exodus 12.
So by the leaders questioning Jesus—trying to bring
out imperfections in Him—they prove Him to be THE LAMB that is taking away the
sin of the world. The Lord didn’t come
as a king; He came as a Lamb.